Article | April 16, 2021
The evolution of smart grid and the transformation in the power sector?
The concept of a Smart Grid has taken centre stage with an evolution of Solar, Wind energy sources, advanced technologies such as AI/ML , Energy storage , introduction of Electric vehicles, sensors that transmit real time data all of which make a smarter, more efficient electrical power grid possible.
In contrast the Existing grid is facing some complex challenges that include integrating renewable energy, Cyber security, high losses, unable to support large Electric vehicle penetration and empowering consumers to become power producers.
It is time for India to make this paradigm shift that touches right from Generation, Transmission, Distribution and consumption. So, the first step would be the installation of smart meters and Advanced Metering infrastructure which is a key component of the smart grid. The roll out of smart meters has already started and integrating other pieces into this smart meter value chain and other building blocks. This new metering system enables two-way flow of information between consumers and utilities and improve the overall grid operations, cost efficient and support large scale penetration of Electric vehicles. A major transformation is underway and utilities need to develop their roadmap for creating a modern Smart Grid.
Solar is seeing low tariffs and what one can interpret from these solar tariff trends?
In the last one year, more than 10GW worth of solar projects are auctioned and tariffs discovered are between Rs2 to Rs 2.5. These low tariffs are result of many factors that include aggressive bidding, entry of foreign players, and expectation that module prices will further fall. Also this Covid pandemic has shrink the economy, thus there are fewer tenders from the govt. with more developers chasing fewer tenders to stay in the race.
These low prices put enormous pressure on EPC companies and Module suppliers to deliver at these rock bottom prices. These bids take into account the low prices of Chinese imports, now with BCD (Basic custom duty) in force from April 2022 it will be challenging for power producers to continue executing projects at such low prices.
Another concern is the delay in signing PPA’s (Power purchase agreements) by Discoms. PPA’s once signed are valid for the entire term of PPA which is usually 25 years. But given the tender tariffs falling every few months, Discoms prefer to wait and delay the signing or renegotiate the existing PPA, dampening the investor confidence and threatening the viability of the Projects. In these circumstances the role of regulatory oversight increases to protect the interests of all the stakeholders. However, in the coming years technology improvements with addition of energy storage and better forecasting techniques, Solar would become the major source and also the cheapest source. So sunny days ahead of solar.
The decentralized solar and innovative business models and financing?
In the current system of centralized power system, a large power plant produces power, transmits, and distributes it among industries and homes. This process is inefficient as some of the electricity is lost in transmission and distribution.
A De-centralized solar is more efficient to generate and consume power locally. It also helps create small businesses and technicians to build and maintain these solar plants. Also as Solar and battery systems increase and become more economical Peer to Peer energy trading is possible where consumers become prosumers (both producers and consumers) and sell their excess power to their peers.
This next generation Energy Management and Peer-to-Peer Energy trading facilitates buy and sell orders just like share trading stock exchange. The Energy trading platform maps the buyers and sellers as per their bids and settles the trades. By introducing Block chain technology for energy trading further reduces the transaction costs. The possible business models would be Community based Solar plants where rooftops and open spaces could be used to generate power and trade. All of this result in less losses and brings the much needed dynamism in the distribution of energy.
Role of AI and data analytics in the energy sector?
The Power sector generates large amounts of data from various nodes on the grid and unfortunately most of this data go unanalysed due to lack of infrastructure and domain expertise. But now with the maturity in data management systems and two-way communication enabling real time data from various components of the grid giving latest and integrated snapshot of the entire power system, it is possible through the application of AI to provide services such as Fault detection, Predictive maintenance, Power quality Monitoring, and Renewable energy forecasting.
Many discoms are plagued by theft of power and Cyberattacks. The recent Cyber attack on Maharashtra power grid is an example that caused massive power outage in Mumbai last October plunging the city into darkness. By using the power of AI/ML, algorithms can be trained to detect any attack based on certain attributes. As soon as the attack is detected an alert is sent to the security engineers to bring the system to safety mode. In addition, Smart meters with pre-paid mechanism are expected to be deployed for remote meter reading and accurate billing thus preventing revenue loss.
AI/ML has the potential to cut energy waste, lower energy costs, and bring more operation efficiencies for the utilities.
Strategies in EV charging and integration with smart grid?
EV’s are promising solution to cut greenhouse gas emissions, reduce the cost of transportation and improving the health of citizens. The emerging business models are Public charging stations, third party owned operated charging station, and owner operated charging station.
However, the ground reality is far fewer EV’s are running on road due to higher cost, Range anxiety, and long charging times. So, there is need to work closely with all the stakeholders right from utilities, Regulatory bodies, Car manufacturers, charging station operators to expedite the process of EV related infrastructure and incentivize customers to adapt to EV’s rather than convention vehicles.
In your question you asked about integration with smart grid and this is a term that captures the shift from basic to smart charging. A smart grid is key to smart EV charging as large number of EV charging at same time can degrade grid performance causing voltage and frequency fluctuations and cause peak power demand or sudden drop in demand. With smart grid in place it is possible to do load balancing, adjust charging patterns and avoid peaking of power.
Also one more challenge is there are 3 competing standards and India should define its own standards and enable charging of any vehicle at any charging station. This interoperability is possible by developing standards for front–end and back-end communication and signalling process between Electric vehicles and charging stations and the grid that supplies the power. Smart grid is essential for large deployments of EV’s.
Investment opportunities and job creation in this transformation to clean power?
Covid has changed the entire investment paradigm and made all of us Environmentally conscious. This is wake up call to prioritize a more sustainable approach to investment in companies that are high on Environmental, Social and Governance score.
The recent momentum in ESG investment with more than 3,300 ESG funds is an indication that businesses that demonstrate business ethics, transparency, Sustainability benefit companies and investors and attract best talent too. The spectacular rise of share price of Tesla is a clear message from investors on clean energy and EV transportation. As the world is getting serious India has a catching up to do from the findings of Refinitiv on ESG.
As Asset managers, Pension funds, Oil and Gas companies evaluate their exposure to fossil based energy sources and switch towards clean energy this is going to create new Green jobs. These new Green jobs range from retrofitting homes with solar panels, providing home based charging stations, energy efficient appliances, Solid waste mgmt, e-waste mgmt. Similarly, Smart cities, Green buildings, greening of enterprises can be achieved by training the work force on these new concepts and driving investments towards job creation and sustainability.
In summary, power sector is in for a major transformation and utilities, industries need to tap the right talent to deal with this disruption and reap immense benefits.
Article | April 28, 2021
According to a survey from Consumer Reports, 76% of Americans believe that expanding renewable energy is a worthwhile goal.
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Article | December 23, 2021
Cleaner energy resources are the dire need of the hour and this is a known fact. While scientists and experts across the planet are striving hard to reduce our reliance on fossil fuels, our energy needs have never faced a downfall- thanks to rapid industrialization and urbanization. Although renewable resources like solar, wind, and hydro-electric power are the most popular alternatives, these are seasonal energy sources and the energy production from the same will not be similar all around the year. The fluctuations in production hence cannot always meet the energy demand of the population, and this makes the renewable energy sources not completely reliable.
Solar Production v/s Demand of the same in a year
What and How H2 is produced?
Now, this is where Hydrogen- the first element of the periodic table comes to the spotlight with a solution. Being a gas, hydrogen fuel can very well cater to our energy needs and is produced from techniques including Thermochemical, Solar-Water splitting, electrolytic and biological processes. While the production of this cleaner energy source leaves a carbon footprint of about 830 million tonnes in the form of CO2 annually, the result being a zero-emission fuel is what makes H2’s future bright.
Storage of H2 – the million-dollar question:
Having almost cleared the need and methods of producing hydrogen fuel, we will be looking at an area that is usually not given much thought about and that is the storage of H2. As already mentioned, for time being let us consider hydrogen as an alternative to renewable resources which is utilized when the energy demand increases drastically. While producing the fuel in the nick of time is obviously undoable, sufficient storage of H2 anticipating the demand is the best choice. Like Natural Gas, Hydrogen is also compressed before storing to achieve lower volume and also because liquid hydrogen demands a 64% higher amount of energy for storage than its compressed gaseous counterpart.
Storage tanks v/s Geological landforms:
Compressed Hydrogen can be stored in surface storage vessels (like steel composite concrete vessels and in wind turbine towers) or in geological landforms like (salt caverns, depleted O&G reservoirs, and aquifers). Nevertheless, unlike the underground geological landforms which offer huge storage capacity owing to their sheer scale, the storage tanks which can range in size from a small bottle to a huge tank require high amounts of pressure to store an appreciable amount of H2 in it. Since these storage tanks are usually constructed on the surface, the pressure conditions in these tanks need to be artificially stimulated and thereby mount huge upfront costs when compared to their geological storage counterpart.
H2 storage prices in Geological Landforms v/s Storage Vessels (in $/kg)
The above is a table comparing the prices of Hydrogen storage in Geological landforms and Storage Vessels at different pressure conditions. It is visible from the table that it's about 218 times cheaper to store the same amount of hydrogen in Geological landforms than in storage vessels.
Is geological storage truly a better option?
Like any other storage option geological storage too has its pros and cons. From the erosion of pipelines to the tedious task of injecting the gas and maintaining it at apt pressure conditions, geological storage has its limitations. However, the important prerequisite is the availability of the suitable landform itself.
While most of the Depleted O&G Reservoirs have already met all the requirements for a suitable Underground Hydrogen Storage (UHS) system, the presence of unrecoverable remnant fluids in it makes it both a boon and a bane. This is because the presence of remnant fluids like oil and gas satisfies the cushion gas need for efficient storage of H2 in the reservoir, chances of contamination of H2 by the same is also high. This is the reason why Aquifers too aren’t favorable underground landforms when it comes to hydrogen storage.
Salt Caverns- the best UHS System?
The problem of Hydrogen contamination in Depleted Oil & Gas reservoirs and aquifers leaves us to the next big suitable subsurface landform- salt caverns. Unlike the other two landforms, the problem of contamination can be prevented in these dome-like structures formed due to the upliftment of salt deposits and it is also found that about 98% of its storage efficiency can be used to store Hydrogen here. The reason behind its relatively expensive nature when compared to its other two counterparts is due to the process of salt removing or leaching that must be done before storing to ensure that the contamination of the gas is unheard of at least here.
Suitable Conditions of UHS:
As per Stefan Iglauer, the maximum amount of H2 can be stored at a depth of 1100m beneath the Earth’s surface and the capacity gradually decreases up until 3700 m depth beyond which the wettability of the gas increases as it percolates through the rocks and hence cannot be permanently immobilized. Conclusively it is found that suitable landforms formed at 1km depth can store up to 2.0 Mt of H2. Comparing this 2 MT storage capacity of Salt Caverns with the currently available storage tanks which can store about 800 kg of H2 in it, it is visible that geological landforms have a clear upper hand at least when it comes to storage capacity.
Future of UHS:
With demands for Hydrogen fuel estimated to grow at 5.48 % annually and the need for a suitable storage system of the same at 5.8% annually, the field of Underground Hydrogen Storage systems indeed has a bright scope. Moreover, to meet the large-scale needs of Industries, there is an imminent need to level up the storage capacity of H2 and by exploring suitable geological landforms across the globe, the estimated industrial need of 1200 kT/ year in 2050 can be met.
Article | August 3, 2021
Renewable energy is the energy generated from natural resources on Earth that are neither limited or exhaustible, such as wind and sun. Thus, renewable energy is an alternative to conventional energy based on fossil fuels and is generally less harmful to the environment.
Some Sources of Renewable Energy
Solar energy is created by capturing sunlight's radiant energy and turning it into heat, electricity, or hot water. Photovoltaic (PV) systems utilize solar cells to convert direct sunlight into energy.
The significant advantage of solar energy is that it is functionally infinite. There is an infinite supply of solar energy with the technology to harvest it, making fossil fuels obsolete. Using solar energy instead of fossil fuels can also help improve public health and environmental conditions. In addition, solar energy has the potential to eliminate energy expenses in the long run, as well as decrease your energy bills in the short term. Many government, state, and local governments also provide rebates or tax credits to encourage investment in solar energy. To know more about Solar Energy, click here.
Although solar energy can save you money in the long term, it has a high upfront cost out of reach for most households. In addition, for personal houses, homeowners should also have enough sunlight and space to install their solar panels, restricting who can realistically adopt this technology on an individual level.
Wind farms use turbines to generate wind energy and convert it to electricity. There are many types of systems used to convert wind energy, and each one is unique. Commercial-grade wind-powered generating systems can power a wide range of organizations, while single-wind turbines are utilized to complement current energy organizations. Utility-scale wind farms, which are purchased on a contract or wholesale basis, are another option. Wind energy is technically a kind of solar energy. Wind is caused by temperature variations in the atmosphere and the rotation of the Earth, and the geography of the planet.
Wind energy is a clean energy source, which means it does not damage the environment in the same way other types of energy do. Wind energy does not emit carbon dioxide or any other hazardous pollutants that can degrade the environment or damage human health, such as smog, acid rain, or other heat-trapping gases. Investment in wind energy technology can also lead to new employment opportunities and job training, as farm turbines should be serviced and maintained to remain operational.
Wind farms are often constructed in rural or isolated locations, far from busy towns where electricity is most required. Wind energy must be transmitted through transition lines, which raises the cost. Even though wind turbines produce relatively little pollution, some cities are opposed to them because they dominate skylines and create noise. In addition, wind turbines can pose a danger to nearby animals, such as birds, who are occasionally killed when they collide with the turbine's arms while flying.
When it comes to hydroelectric power, most people think of dams. Pumped-storage hydropower is the process through which water flows through the turbines of a dam to generate energy. Run-of-river hydropower utilizes a canal to funnel water through rather than a dam to power it.
Hydroelectric power is very flexible since it can be generated utilizing both large-scale projects such as the Hoover Dam and small-scale projects such as underwater turbines and lower dams on rivers and streams. In addition, because hydroelectric power does not emit pollutants, it is a far more ecologically beneficial energy source for our environment.
The majority of hydroelectric power plants use more energy than they generate. To pump water, the storage systems may need to utilize fossil fuels. Although hydroelectric power does not contaminate the air, it disrupts rivers. It harms the animals that dwell in them by changing water levels, currents, and migratory routes for many fish and other freshwater ecosystems.
Geothermal heat is heat trapped under the Earth's crust due to the Earth's creation 4.5 billion years ago and radioactive decay. Large quantities of this heat can sometimes escape spontaneously, but only all at once, resulting in well-known phenomena like volcanic explosions and geysers. This heat can be collected and utilized to generate geothermal energy by utilizing steam generated by heated water pumping under the surface, which rises to the surface and can power a turbine.
Geothermal energy is not as common as other forms of renewable energy, but it has considerable energy supply potential. In addition, it has a little environmental impact because it can be constructed underground. As geothermal energy is replenished naturally, it is not in danger of depletion.
When it comes to the drawbacks of geothermal energy, the cost is a significant issue. Not only is the infrastructure expensive to construct, but it is also vulnerable to earthquakes in some parts of the world.
Is renewable energy capable of powering the future?
Renewable energy technologies already account for approximately 26% of total global power, and the International Energy Agency (IEA) predicts that this will rise to 30% by 2024. According to the IEA, by 2024, the world's renewable energy capacity will have increased by 1,200 GW, which is equivalent to the capacity of the whole United States.
Expert analysis indicates that a completely sustainable energy system can be achieved worldwide over the next 30 years; the difficult part is persuading countries to change their ways.
What is the significance of renewable energy in the future?
There are many reasons why renewable energy is critical for the future, particularly given the negative impact that fossil fuels have on our world. This includes, among other things, air and water pollution, habitat and wildlife loss, and greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to global warming. Here are a few examples of why renewable energy is so important:
Lowers air pollution: By lowering air pollution, renewable energy may help improve people's health worldwide. Air pollution is a significant environmental problem, particularly in metropolitan areas and developing countries, and the World Health Organization estimates that 7 million people die prematurely due to inhaling contaminated air each year.
Lowers the danger of floods and droughts: Using renewable energy can also lower the risk of floods and droughts throughout the world. For example, many gallons of water are required to operate power plants that burn fossil fuels, leading to droughts in many low-rainfall nations. In contrast, climate change induced by the combustion of fossil fuels produces greater rainfall in other areas, resulting in catastrophic floods.
Promotes local economies: The development of renewable energy technologies also contributes to creating new employment and financing for local economies. As a result, more employment in renewable energy is being generated every day, and they are only expected to grow more secure as technology advances.
Lower long-term costs: Clean energy sources are becoming more appealing investment possibilities than fossil fuels. With the growing popularity of renewable energy sources like solar and wind power, investment is low risk, even with hefty initial installation costs. They can effectively generate electricity "for free" for decades after installation.
A future powered by renewable energy will result in a more sustainable environment and help many local economies in ways that fossil fuels cannot.
What is the best future renewable energy source?
Solar energy and wind power, together with hydropower, are considered the greatest renewable energy sources for powering our future planet. They are the cleanest renewable resources and are ideal for household, industrial, and national grid uses.
They can offer limitless quantities of clean energy to the world, but they can also boost local economies. Wind power technology has already resulted in a significant rise in employment and helps to put money back into local communities, with additional jobs being generated with each installation.
Solar energy can benefit everyone who has sufficient space for PV panels, and it is much less intrusive than wind turbines. And, although initial installation prices can be high, they will start to fall as solar becomes more common.
Is it possible for the world to survive on 100% renewable energy in the future?
The world may survive on 100% renewable energy in the future, but this will not be without challenges. To read more about the challenges in renewable energy click here. Each nation will have to go through its transition phase, which will be relatively simple for some and more difficult for others. Others may be hesitant even to begin the transition if their economy is highly dependent on fossil fuels.
The world's future can be unpredictable, and it's impossible to tell if it's possible to live completely on renewable energy. Still, we can help make the planet a better place by switching our homes' electricity to renewable energy.
In the future, how efficient will renewable energy be?
Renewable energy efficiency is determined by how much energy can be generated in a given period and how much it costs to generate this energy. Despite the fact that all renewable energy technologies have high initial costs, the costs of generating energy are considerably lower than the costs of obtaining fossil fuels.
With the continuous advancement of renewable energy technology, this efficiency will only increase, bringing us closer to a bright future for renewable energy.
What are the future benefits and drawbacks of renewable energy?
Renewable energy technologies have an infinite supply — as long as we have the sun, wind, water, and natural heat, we have renewable energy technologies.
Reduced global warming impacts, such as floods, severe storms, droughts, and other extreme weather conditions.
Fewer air contaminants, which lead to improved respiratory health.
Reduced greenhouse gas emissions result in a more stable climate.
More employment for local areas.
More robust supply, which assists in the elimination of power outages.
Lower energy costs, particularly with renewable energy prices falling.
Expensive initial installation costs.
Intermittent - depending on the renewable energy source, they will not provide electricity 24 hours a day, seven days a week. Solar energy, for example, cannot be produced at night, and wind is not always powerful enough to spin a turbine.
More advancements in storage solutions are required - renewable energy storage can be costly, but this is expected to improve as technology advances.
Geographical constraints - some areas will be more suited to renewable energy sources than others.
What factors will influence the future of renewable energy?
The environmental advantages and the cost of transition are the two most important factors determining the future of renewable energy.
The benefits of renewable energy sources often exceed the drawbacks, yet the high initial costs frequently discourage people from investing. Luckily, as environmental problems become more generally recognized, renewable energy prices, including installation costs, are falling, providing greater incentive to switch to renewable energy sources.
So, what does the future of renewable energy hold?
Renewable energy is expected to grow in popularity over the next decade, attempting to minimize the impacts of climate change. This may take some time, but we will have to switch to renewable energy to fight against climate change and protect our environment.
Why is renewable energy the future?
Alternative energy sources emit much less Carbon dioxide than natural gas, coal, and other fossil fuels. Switching to renewable energy sources for electricity production will benefit the environment by delaying and reversing climate change.
Is renewable energy a good investment for business?
There are many benefits to investing in renewable energy sources for businesses, including increased marketing possibilities, fewer emissions, cheaper energy costs, and many more. Businesses must lead the way in becoming more sustainable by expanding their usage of renewable energy.
What is the best renewable energy source for the future?
Solar energy and wind power, together with hydropower, are considered the greatest renewable energy sources for powering our future planet. They are the cleanest renewable resources and are ideal for household, industrial, and national grid uses. They can offer limitless quantities of clean energy to the world, but they can also boost local economies. Wind power technology has already resulted in a significant rise in employment and helps to put money back into local communities, with additional jobs being generated with each installation.
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"text": "Alternative energy sources emit much less Carbon dioxide than natural gas, coal, and other fossil fuels. Switching to renewable energy sources for electricity production will benefit the environment by delaying and reversing climate change."
"name": "Is renewable energy a good investment for business?",
"text": "There are many benefits to investing in renewable energy sources for businesses, including increased marketing possibilities, fewer emissions, cheaper energy costs, and many more. Businesses must lead the way in becoming more sustainable by expanding their usage of renewable energy."
"name": "What is the best renewable energy source for the future?",
"text": "Solar energy and wind power, together with hydropower, are considered the greatest renewable energy sources for powering our future planet. They are the cleanest renewable resources and are ideal for household, industrial, and national grid uses. They can offer limitless quantities of clean energy to the world, but they can also boost local economies. Wind power technology has already resulted in a significant rise in employment and helps to put money back into local communities, with additional jobs being generated with each installation."